Everything we have discussed until this point has been the exclusive merit of nature. Now let’s see what happens with the passage to the expert hands of man, when they transform a stone in a bead gem handcrafted jewelry stone.
Most gemmiferous deposits have been discovered by chance, without the use of modern techniques or scientific bases. Areas still exist today where the methods of mining are the same as they were 2000 years ago!
The simplest method of mining is extraction of the gemmiferous gravel from the dry beds of ancient waterways. This procedure involves digging a small vertical pit in the gravel and, if conditions permit, in the subsequent horizontal drifts starting from the base of the pit. The crystals, which grow on the interior of a mother rock, are broken free using hand tools, compressed air or simple explosives. The disintegrated rocks are then washed, and the gemmiferous material, which is heavier than rock, is deposited at the bottom of the pans.
Mining from secondary deposits is different but likewise simple. The entire mine cover is removed, which gives this type of mining its name open mine. In this case as well, jets of water are used to break up the subsoil if necessary. From this point forward, all procedures are similar to those previously discussed.
Once the gems have been mined, they just have to be classified!!